History!

Hello. I'm Ryan. I study History at Missouri State University.
Portrait of Herbert Hoover at his wedding in Monterey, California, 1899.
From: The Herbert Hoover Library

Portrait of Herbert Hoover at his wedding in Monterey, California, 1899.

From: The Herbert Hoover Library

obitoftheday:

Obit of the Day (Historical): President Herbert Hoover (1964)
When former president Herbert Hoover died on October 20, 1964 he had seen his reputation ebb and flow from worldwide war hero to Depression-era failure to honored statesman. The first president born west of the Mississippi River, and the only from Iowa, would live a life that earned him five Nobel Peace Prize nominations as well as the derision of a vast majority of the U.S. electorate.
Mr. Hoover was born on August 10, 1874 and was an orphan by the time he was ten. Raised by a variety of aunts and uncles across the Great Plains and Pacific Northwest, young Mr. Hoover eventually landed at Stanford University, a member of the university’s first-ever class. (Mr. Hoover liked to brag that he was he was, in fact, the school’s first student since he slept in the dorms before any others had.)
While earning a bachelor of science in geology he met his wife-to-be, Lou Henry, who graduated with the same degree. The couple then traveled the world following Mr. Hoover’s career prospects as a mining engineer. In 1900 the Hoovers found themselves in China in the midst of the Boxer Rebellion. During the Rebellion Mrs. Hoover worked in the local hospitals while Mr. Hoover organized barricades and lead Marines around the city of Tianjin. (Their knowledge of Chinese, learned during their two-year stay, later came in handy while in the White House when the two would discourage eavesdropping by speaking in Mandarin.)
After leaving China, Mr. Hoover established himself as a mining consultant, traveling the world. Simultaneously he and Mrs. Hoover tapped their intellectual curiosities by publishing articles and various translations. The couple were best known for translating the 1554 mining treatise De re metallica by Georgius Agricola - a translation of such value that it remains in print more than 100 years later*.
When the Germans invaded Belgium in 1914, Mr. Hoover’s life changed forever. It began while he was living in London and the U.S. asked him for help in arranging the evacuation of Americans from Europe as hostilities erupted. Mr. Hoover’s organized efforts help get 120,000 U.S. citizens home.
Not long after Mr. Hoover established the Commission for the Relief of Belgium, a non-governmental organization, tasked with getting food to citizens of Belgium while besieged by the German army. Mr. Hoover made over 40 trips from England to the Continent to speak with German liaisons to ensure food got to starving Belgians. Later the organization expanded to include all of Western Europe and was renamed the American Relief Administration, which fed 10.5 million men, women, and children daily during the war.
When the U.S. finally joined the war effort militarily in 1917, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Mr. Hoover as the head of the U.S. Food Administration. Mr. Hoover worked to modify food consumption nationwide in order to provide enough supplies to the U.S. military as well as European war victims. He created “Meatless Mondays,” “Wheatless Wednesdays,” and similar programs to encourage the saving of food without forcing Americans to ration.
His work during World War I made him a hero both in the U.S. and around the world. His fame was at such a level that President Wilson and then-Asst. Secretary of War Franklin Roosevelt, thought he could be the 1920 Democratic candidate for president. Unfortunately for them, Mr. Hoover chose to be a Republican in part because, according to him, the only Democrat in his hometown was the town drunk.
When Warren Harding was elected to the presidency in November 1920, he asked Mr. Hoover to join his cabinet as Secretary of Commerce or Interior. Mr. Hoover chose the former and would hold the position longer than any other person in U.S. history, nearly seven-and-a-half years.
In the rather pro-business environment of the Harding, and then Coolidge, administrations, Mr. Hoover pushed for greater partnerships between government and private business - a vast departure from the previous two decades of progressive politics under Wilson, Taft, and Roosevelt. The economy seemed to like the idea, though, and it boomed throughout the 1920s with Mr. Hoover gaining greater visibility in his cabinet role. By 1928 he was seen as the forgone Republican nominee. 
Mr. Hoover won the 1928 election in a landslide over Democrat Alfred Smith. Although there was some strong anti-Catholic sentiment conncted with Smith’s candidacy, voters simply elected the man they considered most likely to continue the economic prosperity. President Hoover was only the second man to serve as Chief Executive without previous electoral experience (Taft) and is the last cabinet member to move directly to the White House. Unfortunately just six months after his inauguration, the 1929 stock market crash destroyed it all.
Although President Hoover was blamed for the Depression and accused of inaction, his record belies that notion. Pres. Hoover asked Congress to spend millions on public work prorgams, including the building of the Hoover Dam. He also supported the greatest peacetime tax increase in 1932 which raised the top income tax rate from 13.5% to 63%. He did refused to provide direct payments of aid to citizens worried that it would lull the populace to inaction which some see as prolonging the worst of the Depression. He also made a somewhat questionable policy decision to repatriate Mexicans to their home country in the hopes of clearing out jobs for U.S. citizens - it did not work (but FDR also continued the policy). It was all for naught.  By the time of the 1932 election, U.S. unemployment was nearing 25%. 
When he lost handily to Franklin Roosevelt in November 1932, Pres. Hoover was somewhat bitter. He felt he was not given a fair chance and that Pres. Roosevelt’s campaign was unfair. (Mr. Hoover also accused Democrats of hindering his economic proposals and purposefully damaging the economy in order to help their electoral prospects. A similar complaint would be lodged by Democrats against Republicans 75 years later.)
For most of Pres. Roosevelt’s three full terms, including World War II, Mr. Hoover was kept on the sidelines. Although he volunteered his services to the American war effort, Pres. Roosevelt’s animosity towards his predecessor was such that he refused to consult with him on any issue.
It wasn’t until President Harry Truman took office that Mr. Hoover was once again called upon to act in service of his country. In 1947, Truman asked Hoover to visit West Germany (the country having been divided by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. in the first move of the Cold War) to assess food needs. Mr. Hoover saw a civilian population in desperate need to supplies and the U.S. delivered over 40,000 tons of food to German children which we known as “Hoover meals.”
Next Mr. Hoover was called upon to reform the offices of the executive branch of government by the president. Known for his desire for increased efficiency and elimination of waste, back from his time as Secretary of Commerce, the Hoover Commission helped save millions in public money. In 1953, President Eisenhower asked Mr. Hoover to form a second commission which reduced unnecessary spending even further. It was his last major public work.
Mr. Hoover lived long enough to rebuild his reputation. By the 1940s he was an honored guest at Republican National Conventions, speaking at his last in 1960. He would end up spending more than 31 years out of office, the most of any former president until Jimmy Carter surpassed the record in September 2012. He also had the honor of being one of only four men in U.S. history to be the only living current or ex-president for a period of time, joining George Washington, John Adams, and Richard Nixon. (Hoover was by himself only for two months following the death of Coolidge in January 1933 and the inauguration of FDR in March of that year.)
When Pres. Hoover died on October 20, 1964, at the age of 90 years and 71 days, he was the second oldest president ever. Only John Adams (90 years, 241 days) had lived longer. (Since President Hoover, Presidents Reagan, Ford, Carter, and H.W. Bush have all become nonagerians. Ford and Reagan are, for now, the two longest lived.)
Sources: WhiteHouse.gov, HooverAssociation.org, philanthropyroundtable.org and Wikipedia
(Image of Herbert Hoover in San Francisco taken in 1899 when Hooever was only 25 years old. The image is copyright of Arnold Genthe and courtesy of the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum located in West Branch, Iowa.)
* Lou Hoover, who died in 1944, was a force in her own right. She assisted her husband in his work in Belgium and was honored by King Albert I after the war. She was the first First Lady to broadcast regularly on national radio. She was also president of the Girl Scouts twice (1922-1925 and 1935-1937). At Stanford she was very involved in athletics and designed the “Lou Hoover House” which was originally for her and Herbert and is now the official residence for the president of Stanford.
Other presidents featured on Obit of the Day:
John Adams/Thomas Jefferson
Chester A. Arthur
Millard Fillmore
William Howard Taft

obitoftheday:

Obit of the Day (Historical): President Herbert Hoover (1964)

When former president Herbert Hoover died on October 20, 1964 he had seen his reputation ebb and flow from worldwide war hero to Depression-era failure to honored statesman. The first president born west of the Mississippi River, and the only from Iowa, would live a life that earned him five Nobel Peace Prize nominations as well as the derision of a vast majority of the U.S. electorate.

Mr. Hoover was born on August 10, 1874 and was an orphan by the time he was ten. Raised by a variety of aunts and uncles across the Great Plains and Pacific Northwest, young Mr. Hoover eventually landed at Stanford University, a member of the university’s first-ever class. (Mr. Hoover liked to brag that he was he was, in fact, the school’s first student since he slept in the dorms before any others had.)

While earning a bachelor of science in geology he met his wife-to-be, Lou Henry, who graduated with the same degree. The couple then traveled the world following Mr. Hoover’s career prospects as a mining engineer. In 1900 the Hoovers found themselves in China in the midst of the Boxer Rebellion. During the Rebellion Mrs. Hoover worked in the local hospitals while Mr. Hoover organized barricades and lead Marines around the city of Tianjin. (Their knowledge of Chinese, learned during their two-year stay, later came in handy while in the White House when the two would discourage eavesdropping by speaking in Mandarin.)

After leaving China, Mr. Hoover established himself as a mining consultant, traveling the world. Simultaneously he and Mrs. Hoover tapped their intellectual curiosities by publishing articles and various translations. The couple were best known for translating the 1554 mining treatise De re metallica by Georgius Agricola - a translation of such value that it remains in print more than 100 years later*.

When the Germans invaded Belgium in 1914, Mr. Hoover’s life changed forever. It began while he was living in London and the U.S. asked him for help in arranging the evacuation of Americans from Europe as hostilities erupted. Mr. Hoover’s organized efforts help get 120,000 U.S. citizens home.

Not long after Mr. Hoover established the Commission for the Relief of Belgium, a non-governmental organization, tasked with getting food to citizens of Belgium while besieged by the German army. Mr. Hoover made over 40 trips from England to the Continent to speak with German liaisons to ensure food got to starving Belgians. Later the organization expanded to include all of Western Europe and was renamed the American Relief Administration, which fed 10.5 million men, women, and children daily during the war.

When the U.S. finally joined the war effort militarily in 1917, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Mr. Hoover as the head of the U.S. Food Administration. Mr. Hoover worked to modify food consumption nationwide in order to provide enough supplies to the U.S. military as well as European war victims. He created “Meatless Mondays,” “Wheatless Wednesdays,” and similar programs to encourage the saving of food without forcing Americans to ration.

His work during World War I made him a hero both in the U.S. and around the world. His fame was at such a level that President Wilson and then-Asst. Secretary of War Franklin Roosevelt, thought he could be the 1920 Democratic candidate for president. Unfortunately for them, Mr. Hoover chose to be a Republican in part because, according to him, the only Democrat in his hometown was the town drunk.

When Warren Harding was elected to the presidency in November 1920, he asked Mr. Hoover to join his cabinet as Secretary of Commerce or Interior. Mr. Hoover chose the former and would hold the position longer than any other person in U.S. history, nearly seven-and-a-half years.

In the rather pro-business environment of the Harding, and then Coolidge, administrations, Mr. Hoover pushed for greater partnerships between government and private business - a vast departure from the previous two decades of progressive politics under Wilson, Taft, and Roosevelt. The economy seemed to like the idea, though, and it boomed throughout the 1920s with Mr. Hoover gaining greater visibility in his cabinet role. By 1928 he was seen as the forgone Republican nominee. 

Mr. Hoover won the 1928 election in a landslide over Democrat Alfred Smith. Although there was some strong anti-Catholic sentiment conncted with Smith’s candidacy, voters simply elected the man they considered most likely to continue the economic prosperity. President Hoover was only the second man to serve as Chief Executive without previous electoral experience (Taft) and is the last cabinet member to move directly to the White House. Unfortunately just six months after his inauguration, the 1929 stock market crash destroyed it all.

Although President Hoover was blamed for the Depression and accused of inaction, his record belies that notion. Pres. Hoover asked Congress to spend millions on public work prorgams, including the building of the Hoover Dam. He also supported the greatest peacetime tax increase in 1932 which raised the top income tax rate from 13.5% to 63%. He did refused to provide direct payments of aid to citizens worried that it would lull the populace to inaction which some see as prolonging the worst of the Depression. He also made a somewhat questionable policy decision to repatriate Mexicans to their home country in the hopes of clearing out jobs for U.S. citizens - it did not work (but FDR also continued the policy). It was all for naught.  By the time of the 1932 election, U.S. unemployment was nearing 25%. 

When he lost handily to Franklin Roosevelt in November 1932, Pres. Hoover was somewhat bitter. He felt he was not given a fair chance and that Pres. Roosevelt’s campaign was unfair. (Mr. Hoover also accused Democrats of hindering his economic proposals and purposefully damaging the economy in order to help their electoral prospects. A similar complaint would be lodged by Democrats against Republicans 75 years later.)

For most of Pres. Roosevelt’s three full terms, including World War II, Mr. Hoover was kept on the sidelines. Although he volunteered his services to the American war effort, Pres. Roosevelt’s animosity towards his predecessor was such that he refused to consult with him on any issue.

It wasn’t until President Harry Truman took office that Mr. Hoover was once again called upon to act in service of his country. In 1947, Truman asked Hoover to visit West Germany (the country having been divided by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. in the first move of the Cold War) to assess food needs. Mr. Hoover saw a civilian population in desperate need to supplies and the U.S. delivered over 40,000 tons of food to German children which we known as “Hoover meals.”

Next Mr. Hoover was called upon to reform the offices of the executive branch of government by the president. Known for his desire for increased efficiency and elimination of waste, back from his time as Secretary of Commerce, the Hoover Commission helped save millions in public money. In 1953, President Eisenhower asked Mr. Hoover to form a second commission which reduced unnecessary spending even further. It was his last major public work.

Mr. Hoover lived long enough to rebuild his reputation. By the 1940s he was an honored guest at Republican National Conventions, speaking at his last in 1960. He would end up spending more than 31 years out of office, the most of any former president until Jimmy Carter surpassed the record in September 2012. He also had the honor of being one of only four men in U.S. history to be the only living current or ex-president for a period of time, joining George Washington, John Adams, and Richard Nixon. (Hoover was by himself only for two months following the death of Coolidge in January 1933 and the inauguration of FDR in March of that year.)

When Pres. Hoover died on October 20, 1964, at the age of 90 years and 71 days, he was the second oldest president ever. Only John Adams (90 years, 241 days) had lived longer. (Since President Hoover, Presidents Reagan, Ford, Carter, and H.W. Bush have all become nonagerians. Ford and Reagan are, for now, the two longest lived.)

Sources: WhiteHouse.gov, HooverAssociation.org, philanthropyroundtable.org and Wikipedia

(Image of Herbert Hoover in San Francisco taken in 1899 when Hooever was only 25 years old. The image is copyright of Arnold Genthe and courtesy of the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum located in West Branch, Iowa.)

* Lou Hoover, who died in 1944, was a force in her own right. She assisted her husband in his work in Belgium and was honored by King Albert I after the war. She was the first First Lady to broadcast regularly on national radio. She was also president of the Girl Scouts twice (1922-1925 and 1935-1937). At Stanford she was very involved in athletics and designed the “Lou Hoover House” which was originally for her and Herbert and is now the official residence for the president of Stanford.

Other presidents featured on Obit of the Day:

John Adams/Thomas Jefferson

Chester A. Arthur

Millard Fillmore

William Howard Taft

Marilyn Monroe and John Huston, 1956. Photo by Burt Glinn.

Marilyn Monroe and John Huston, 1956. Photo by Burt Glinn.

georgy-konstantinovich-zhukov:

"He ‘Picked Up’ More than a Girl!" - Warning against Venerial Diseases for Allied Soldiers during World War II. The US Army suffered 49 cases per 1000 personnel during World War II (Much lower than Vietnam with its 325 per 1000 personnel, but also lower than World War I’s 87 cases per 1000, no doubt to the greater availability of prophylactics).
(IWM)

georgy-konstantinovich-zhukov:

"He ‘Picked Up’ More than a Girl!" - Warning against Venerial Diseases for Allied Soldiers during World War II. The US Army suffered 49 cases per 1000 personnel during World War II (Much lower than Vietnam with its 325 per 1000 personnel, but also lower than World War I’s 87 cases per 1000, no doubt to the greater availability of prophylactics).

(IWM)

weirdvintage:

Ladies’ stockings were rationed during WWII, so women in a Croydon store have their legs painted to resemble stockings, including the seam up the back, July 1941 (Scanned by WeirdVintage from Getty Images’ Decades of the 20th Century: 1940s by Nick Yapp)

weirdvintage:

Ladies’ stockings were rationed during WWII, so women in a Croydon store have their legs painted to resemble stockings, including the seam up the back, July 1941 (Scanned by WeirdVintage from Getty Images’ Decades of the 20th Century: 1940s by Nick Yapp)

operationbarbarossa:

A US soldier looks for Japanese troops during the Battle of Saipan - June 1944
Photo by W. Eugene Smith

operationbarbarossa:

A US soldier looks for Japanese troops during the Battle of Saipan - June 1944

Photo by W. Eugene Smith

Favourite Moments from Cosmos: A SpaceTime Odyssey (6/?)

- From Episode 3: When Knowledge Conquered Fear

(Source: child-of-thecosmos, via peashooter85)

Experience declares that man is the only animal which devours his own kind; for I can apply no milder term to the governments of Europe, and to the general prey of the rich on the poor.

—Thomas Jefferson

President Roosevelt in the spring of 1904.

President Roosevelt in the spring of 1904.

Confederate prisoners captured in the Shenandoah Valley being guarded in a Union camp, 1862.
From: The National Archives

Confederate prisoners captured in the Shenandoah Valley being guarded in a Union camp, 1862.

From: The National Archives

It is of the utmost danger to society to make it [religion] a party in political disputes.

—Thomas Paine 

peashooter85:

Christopher Columbus and the Flat Earth Myth,

Perhaps one of the most interesting myths concerning Christopher Columbus’ voyage to the Americas is the notion that people living in  Columbus’ time believed the world to be flat.  Furthermore, it was Columbus’ theory that the Earth was round, and that he could sail across the world to get to China.  Thus by conducting his voyage, Columbus proved the earth to be round and dispelled millennia of ancient and medieval humbuggery.  Today the story may be taught differently in schools, but I know that as a child that was the story I was fed.  Perhaps many others learned the same thing.  Well now I am here to dispel this old myth, and reveal the true story, and true purpose of Columbus’ voyage.

Myth #1 People believed the Earth was Flat

Not true, in fact most, if not all educated people in the Middle Ages knew that the world was round.  INumerous examples of Medieval cosmology depict a round planet.

image

image

image

Even in the great Medieval work The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri, the Earth and the Universe are depicted as being round.

Furthermore, the idea that the world is round was nothing new in Renaissance Europe.  Greek philosophers and scientists such as Plato, Aristotle, and Pythagoras all taught that the world was round.  In 240 BC the Greek mathematician Erosthenes not only proved the world to be round, but also calculated it’s rough circumference to 25,000 miles.  He was very close as the circumference of the Earth is 24,901 miles.

image 

image

In later years many Greek and Roman scholars would add to his work.  Even in Medieval Europe monks, philosophers, scientists, navigators, and scholars wrote or depicted a round earth.  One person, named St. Bebe the Venerable, wrote in a treatise called The Reckoning of Time, which described the earth being round and was the cause of unequal lengths of daylight. Throughout the Middle Ages The Reckoning on Time was required reading at universities and monasteries all over Europe.

Myth #2 Columbus was out to prove the world was round.

Nope, Columbus was not out to prove the earth was round, Columbus was out to prove that he could sail to China.  During the late Middle Ages the Ottoman Turks restricted trade along the Silk Road to China.  Worse yet China became an isolationist empire, refusing to allow the exportation of goods through the Silk Road.  Columbus believed that he could bypass the Silk Road by sailing west across the Atlantic.  As a navigator, Columbus certainly would have known the world to be round.  After all, navigation equipment of the day were designed to be used with a round earth, such as the quadrant,

image

and astrolabe

image

If the earth was round, Columbus’ tools and navigational techniques would have all been useless.

Myth #3 Kings and Queens refused to sponsor Columbus because they thought he would sail off the flat of the Earth.

Before Columbus gained patronage with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, Columbus requested expeditions from the French, English, and Portuguese.  One common myth was that Columbus was denied sponsorship because people believed the Earth was flat, and that Columbus would sail right off the edge.  Of course by now I should have solidly disproved the idea of a Medieval flat earth.  Of all people, Kings and Queens would have known the earth was round, being educated themselves or having access to highly educated advisers.   The rulers or Europe did not grant Columbus an expedition for that reason.  

Remember the Greek mathematician Erosthenes and how he proved the Earth to be round? Remember his calculation that the Earth was 25,000 miles in circumference?  Columbus believed the Earth was smaller than what Erosthenes had calculated.  In fact he believed the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan to be only 3,000 miles, while in reality the distance is more like 19,000.  Columbus believed this because he was an avid follower of the geographer Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, who believed the Atlantic Ocean looked something like this…

File:Atlantic Ocean, Toscanelli, 1474.jpg

As a result the monarchs of Europe scoffed at Columbus’ idea.  While Columbus insisted China was a mere 3,000 miles away, the monarchs of Europe knew that it was much farther, and for all they knew, there could be nothing but 19,000 miles of open ocean between Europe and Asia.  Neither they nor Columbus had any idea, or at least had very little idea, that there was a whole unexplored continent in between.

Columbus’ crew mutinied because they feared they were going to sail off the edge of the world.

On October 10th, 1492 Columbus’ crew grew near mutinous from fear after over two months of voyaging.  Going with the old myth that they feared sailing off a flat earth, they demanded Columbus turn around to avert disaster.  Columbus promised them they would head home if they did not sight land within two days.  This mutiny of Columbus’ crew actually did happen, but they were not afraid of a flat earth.  Again, being experienced seamen, they would have known well that the earth was round. So what were they afraid of?  Remember that if Columbus was wrong, they were only be at the beginning of a 19,000 mile voyage over open ocean.  There were no friendly ports nearby, they had not sighted land in two months, and they had no idea what lied ahead.  So what were they afraid of?  All of the things sailors are typically afraid of; storms, starvation, disease, scurvy, dehydration, shipwreck, and drowning.  Wouldn’t you be afraid?

The Origins of the Myth

imageIn 1828, Washington Irving wrote a biography of Columbus.  Not a scholarly work, Irving completely fictionalized much of the biography.  As a result many myths were propagated, including the flat earth myth.  Eventually the myth was parroted by other writers, as well as historians, teachers, and scholars.  The myth was further embellished in the mid to late 19th century when scholars made the claim that the medieval church believed the earth to be flat, an anecdote which scientist used in the debate over science vs. religion.  Eventually the myth became “truth” and decades worth of historical damage was wrought.

(Source: Wikipedia, via peashooter85)

A party for bankers and railroad men on Blue Grass Lawn at Calexico. The California Development Company was in hopes that after this campout the men would invest in Imperial Valley schemes, ca. 1904.
From: The National Archives

A party for bankers and railroad men on Blue Grass Lawn at Calexico. The California Development Company was in hopes that after this campout the men would invest in Imperial Valley schemes, ca. 1904.

From: The National Archives

Did Jefferson really say that? Why bogus quotations matter in gun debate

A CNN article goes into spurious Jefferson quotations used to bolster 2nd Amendment arguments. Of course, Jefferson was in Paris when the Constitution was written & ratified. And when those first 10 amendments were added.

The Founding Fathers are frequently quoted in the gun control debate, but many of those quotations turn out to be fake. The most popular comment on a recent story about gun control featured a purported quotation from Thomas Jefferson. More than 2,000 votes pushed it to the top.

"When governments fear the people, there is liberty," reads the quotation. "When the people fear the government, there is tyranny. The strongest reason for the people to retain the right to keep and bear arms is, as a last resort, to protect themselves against tyranny in government."

The same quotation has been posted dozens of times in other readers’ posts. Some readers worked to debunk it by mentioning Monticello.org, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation’s website, which has a section devoted to “spurious” quotations that have been attributed to the third president of the United States.

The article quotes a Jefferson expert who complains that so many of the fake quotations sound obviously false to anybody familiar with TJ’s style. And some gun advocates who say that the folks at Monticello obviously just missed some of Jefferson’s work. (They have pretty complete records there.) Or they think he’d agree with them, so why not just make stuff up?

We are also reminded that gun-toting rebels won the Revolution. But, of course, Jefferson never fought in that or any war. He was investigated for his wartime “service” as Governor of Virginia, when tardy turnout by the Virginia militia let Richmond be captured. Which brings up the argument that Southern militias’ primary function was guarding against slave rebellions. (Was the 2nd Amendment needed to convince Virginia to ratify the Constitution?)

Well, that can get complicated. I just wish people could make their own arguments—or at least find valid quotations to back them up. This lying gets boring after a while….

(via not-bridget)

Fake Founder Quotes are one of my biggest historical pet peeves. Especially when they’re trivially easy to verify. 

(via minutemanworld)

(via minutemanworld)